Header graphic for print
Chicago IP Litigation Tracking Northern District of Illinois IP Cases

Tag Archives: Kocoras

De Minimis Sales Create Specific Jurisdiction

Posted in Jurisdiction

Valtech, LLC v. 18th Ave. Toys, Ltd., No 14 C 134, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Feb. 12, 2015) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras denied defendant’s Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(2) motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction or to transfer to the E.D. New York — this Lanham Act trade dress case involving packaging for magnetic, plastic blocks.

Plaintiff did not allege general jurisdiction, only specific jurisdiction based upon sales of accrued products into Illinois.  The Court held as follows:

  • Although defendant’s sales to Illinois were “very minimal,” they still sold accused product in the state.
  • Defendants “aimed” their accused products at all fifty states via the Internet.
  • Illinois had a substantial interest in providing a forum for its residents, such as Valtech, to seek redress.
  • Defendants failed to show that the E.D. New York was clearly more convenient than the N.D. Illinois.
  • The public interest factors were neutral.

Descriptive Trademark Does Not Survive Summary Judgment

Posted in Summary Judgment

Box Acquisitions, LLC d/b/a Box Partners, LLC v. Box Packaging Prods., LLC, No. 12 C 4021, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Mar. 26, 2014) (Kocoras, J.).

The Court granted summary judgment for defendant in this Lanham Act case involving alleged trademark infringement regarding plaintiff’s BOX PACKAGING trademarks.  The “key issue” was whether BOX PACKAGING was a protectable mark or was unprotectable as a descriptive term that has not acquired sufficient secondary meaning.

The Court held that BOX PACKAGING was descriptive as a matter of law.  No imagination was required to connect BOX PACKAGING to the box and packaging services offered by plaintiff.  The fact that plaintiff did more than just distribute boxes and packaging did not sway the Court because all of plaintiff’s services encompass boxing and packaging somehow.  The Court was also swayed by how other companies used “Box Packaging” within the industry.  The fact that BOX PACKAGING is not defined in the dictionary was not enough to avoid summary judgment of descriptiveness.

Regarding secondary meaning, plaintiff did not offer any direct evidence, which comes from consumer testimony or consumer surveys.  The Court, therefore, turned to the circumstantial evidence.  Plaintiffs use of BOX PACKAGING was not exclusive, many others used the phrase.  And the fact that plaintiff largely stopped using BOX PACKAGING in favor of BOX PARTNERs weighed against a finding of secondary meaning. 

Furthermore, plaintiff offered no evidence of advertising or sales figures to support secondary meaning based upon such expenditures.  The Court also held that plaintiff’s evidence of intentional copying was weakened because plaintiff chose a descriptive mark. 

Plaintiff’s proof of actual confusion was insufficient because plaintiff could not identify the customers that allegedly expressed confusion.

The Court granted summary judgment regarding plaintiff’s claims that defendant sought to fraudulently register its trademark because there were several other entities using versions of the mark.  So, the fact that defendants were aware of plaintiff did not suggest that defendants could not register their marks. 

The Court also granted summary judgment as to defendant’s purchase of various “boxpackaging” domain names because plaintiff was not actively using BOX PACKAGING at the time, noting that had defendants acted when plaintiff was actively using the mark the result “could have been vastly different.”

Foreign Defendant’s Refusal To Concede Jurisdiction In Any State Creates Jurisdiction

Posted in Federal Rules, Jurisdiction

Snap-On Inc. v. Robert Bosch, LLC, No. 09 C 06914, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Sept. 26, 2013) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras denied defendant Beissbarth’s Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(2) motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction in this patent infringement case involving patents relating to an optical wheel alignment system.  Plaintiff asserted jurisdiction over Beissbarth was proper pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 4(k)(2) that establishes jurisdiction if: (1) the plaintiff’s claim arises under federal law: (2) the defendant is not subject to jurisdiction in any state’s court of general jurisdiction; and (3) the exercise of jurisdiction comports with due process. The first requirement was uncontested. The second requirement was satisfied because Beissbarth refused to identify another forum where jurisdiction would be proper.  Under the  Federal Circuit’s burden shifting approach, if a defendant asserts that it cannot be sued in the form state and refuses to identify any other state where suit is possible, Rule 4(k)(2) may be used to establish jurisdiction.  The third requirement of Rule 4(k)(2) was satisfied under the Federal Circuit’s three-part test to determine if personal jurisdiction over a foreign defendant comports with due process: Beissbarth purposefully directed its activities at residents of the United States; the claims against Beissbarth “arise out of” and “relate to” Beissbarth’s activities in the United States; and, exercising jurisdiction would be reasonable and fair.

Induced Infringement Claims Need Not Use the Word “Induce”

Posted in Pleading Requirements

Snap-On Inc. v. Robert Bosch, LLC, No. 09 C 6914, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. July 11, 2012) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras denied defendants’ Beissbarth GmbH (“Beissbarth”) and Robert Bosch, GmbH’s (“Bosch Germany”) (collectively “German Defendants”) Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss.  As an initial matter, the court denied plaintiff Snap-On’s argument that the motion was an improper Rule 12(b) motion pursuant to Rule 12(g)(2) because the German Defendants previously filed a Rule 12(b)(2) motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction.  The Court ordered limited jurisdictional discovery prior to deciding that motion.  That discovery had become “highly contested.”  The German Defendants sought and received the Court’s leave to file this Rule 12(b)(6) motion because were the motion granted, it would have removed the need for that discovery.  The Rule 12(b)(6) motion, therefore, was not filed for dilatory purposes and it promoted the policies behind Rule 12(g).

Of particular note, the Court held the following with respect to the Rule 12(b)(6) motion:

  • General allegations that all defendants directly infringed were sufficient.  Snap-On was not required to make separate infringement allegations as to each defendant by name.
  • Snap-On’s claim that the German Defendants used the product in Illinois was sufficient to plead direct infringement.
  • Snap-On was not estopped from pursuing inducement claims based upon Snap-On’s statements to the Court regarding claiming direct infringement against the German Defendants.  Those statements were about direct infringement as opposed to joint infringement claims, and had no bearing upon indirect infringement claims.
  • Snap-On’s allegations were sufficient to plead inducement.  Snap-On alleged the German Defendants worked with defendant Robert Bosch USA to develop, price, and market the accused products and that Snap-On sent Bosch a warning letter prior to the US introduction of the accused product.  Snap-On’s failure to use the words “induce” or “inducement” did not doom its claim because Snap-On still pled the elements of inducement.

Contract Claims Sound in Copyright

Posted in Jurisdiction

Schrock v. Learning Curve Int’l, Inc., No. 04 C 6927, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Sep. 29, 2010) (Kocoras, J.)

Judge Kocoras denied defendant’s Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(1) motion to dismiss for lack of subject matter jurisdiction and Rule 56 motion for summary judgment in this copyright and contract dispute involving photographs of Thomas & Friends characters – trains from the island of Sodor well-known to those like me with young children.

First, plaintiff’s claims sounded in copyright regardless of whether the Court used the "face of the complaint" test or the "principal and controlling issue" test both of which have been used by the Seventh Circuit. The complaint and the issues expressed in it made clear that copyrights were at the heart of the dispute. The Complaint alleged that plaintiff authored photographs and copyrighted them, entered an agreement with defendants, and that defendant’s use of the photographs violated the agreement.

Second, the Court denied summary judgment as to the contract claim because there was a question of material fact as to whether a binding agreement was formed between the parties and the Court held that in the event the trier of fact determined a valid contract exists, the agreement was not barred by the statute of frauds because plaintiff had fully performed his obligations pursuant to the agreement.

Owner Can Be Personally Liable for Corporate Trademark Infringement

Posted in Jurisdiction

More Cupcakes, LLC v. Lovemore LLC, No. 09 C 3555, Slip. Op. (N.D. Ill. Sep. 29, 2009) (Kocoras, J.)

Judge Kocoras denied defendants (collectively “Lovemore”) Fed. R. Cir. P. 12(b)(2) motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction and Fed. R. Cir. P.12(b)(6) motion to dismiss the individual Lovemore defendants’ (collectively "Lovemore individuals") based upon the fiduciary shield doctrine in this Lanham Act dispute regarding plaintiff More Cupcake’s LOVE MORE mark for use on t-shirts. The Court did, however, grant Lovemore’s §1404 motion to transfer the case to the Eastern District of New York.

The parties agreed that the Court lacked general jurisdiction and argued only specific jurisdiction. The Court held that it had specific jurisdiction based upon the effects test. Lovemore’s alleged infringing acts were aimed at More Cupcakes in Illinois when Lovemore approved sales of allegedly infringing t-shirts to Illinois addresses after being warned of the alleged infringement in a Patent & Trademark Office proceeding and in settlement talks with More Cupcakes. Lovemore’s interactive website coupled with sales to Illinois also created specific jurisdiction. The fact that Lovemore’s most recent Illinois sale was to More Cupcakes’ counsel did not impact the analysis. Lovemore still knowingly sold product within Illinois. 

The fiduciary shield doctrine did not apply to the individual defendants, who were both owners and operators of Lovemore. The fiduciary shield doctrine denies personal jurisdiction over individuals who contact Illinois solely for the benefit of their employees and not themselves. But the doctrine does not apply to owners of a company that have discretion over whether or not they do business in Illinois. As Lovemore owners, therefore, the Lovemore individuals are not protected by the fiduciary shield doctrine.

For similar reasons, while corporate officers are generally not personally liable for corporate trademark infringement claims, More Cupcakes’ claims against the Lovemore individuals survived. Both individuals were owners of Lovemore and the Complaint alleged that they personally directed the allegedly infringing acts.

Finally, the Court transferred the case to the Eastern District of New York.  While More Cupcakes’ chosen forum deserves deference, the material events regarding the alleged infringement all occurred in New York where the t-shirts were designed, made, offered for sale and sold. And the Court held that the convenience factors, such as locations of documents and witnesses, were all neutral.

Request for Jurisdictional Discovery Does Not Overcome Lack of Evidence

Posted in Jurisdiction

Poparic v. Lincoln Square Video, No. 08 C 3491, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Jun. 25, 2009) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras granted defendant Taste of Europe’s Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(2) motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction.  Plaintiff alleged that Taste of Europe sold a single copy of plaintiff’s copyrighted movie in its Indiana store and argued only that the Court had general jurisdiction over Taste of Europe, without addressing specific jurisdiction.  Taste of Europe presented evidence that it was an Indiana-based business that did not advertise in Illinois or conduct any business in or with Illinois.  Plaintiff did not present any evidence of Taste of Europe’s Illinois connections, but sought jurisdictional discovery.  The Court, however, found that it lacked personal jurisdiction, holding that jurisdictional discovery was not appropriate where plaintiff had identified no evidence showing Illinois connections to overcome Taste of Europe’s proofs.

Claim Constructions Should Not Use “Consisting of” Lightly

Posted in Claim Construction

SRAM Corp. v. Formula S.R.L., No. 06 C 1025 & 07 C 1565, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Apr. 3, 2009) (Kocoras, J.).*

Judge Kocoras construed the terms of plaintiff SRAM’s patents to components of a hydraulic disc brakes for bicycles.  Of particular interest, the Court construed the following terms:

  • "One-piece lever" did not require further construction.  Defendant’s proposed construction — a lever consisting of only one piece — was unnecessarily limiting.  Furthermore, the use of patent term of art "consisting of" would have "drastic consequences" to the scope of the inventor’s protection.  Similarly, defendant’s other construction — only one piece — was unnecessary.  It did not add anything to the term "one-piece."
  • "Attached" did not require a direct connection between two components, as proposed by defendant.  Defendant’s reliance upon the patent’s figures was pertinent, but not dispositive.  In fact, the specification specifically identified an attachment between two components by a third component.  Attached, therefore, meant the connection of two components, whether or not the connection used an intermediate component.

*  I am posting about this decision on the eve of the first Grand Tour of 2009, the Giro d’Italia.  Good luck to Lance Armstrong, Levi Leipheimer, and the American teams, High Road and Slipstream.

Stay Pending Reexam Granted as to One of Three Patents

Posted in Discovery

Fellowes, Inc. v. Aurora Corp. of Am., No. 07 C 7237, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Feb. 10, 2009) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras granted defendants’ motion to stay the litigation as to U.S. Patent No. 7,311,276 ("’276 patent") pending the ‘276 patent’s reexamination.  The Court previously denied defendants’ motion to stay the case as to the two other patents in suit.  But the Court granted a stay as to the ‘276 patent based upon the substantial new question of patentability identified by the Patent Office in granting the reexam.  The Court acknowledged that defendants would be able to challenge the ‘276 patent’s validity after the reexam, but held that a stay would still reduce the burden of the litigation on all parties and the Court.

Allegation of Registration Without Certificate Sufficient for Copyright Claim

Posted in Legal News

Stereo Optical Co., Inc. v. Judy, No. 08 C 2512, 2008 WL 4185689 (N.D. Ill. Sep. 8, 2008) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras granted in part defendants’ Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss plaintiff’s copyright, trade secret and related state law claims. The Court noted that the Seventh Circuit required a registered copyright, not just pre-registration, to file a copyright complaint. But the Court held that it was sufficient to allege the registration and did not dismiss the claim because the registration was not attached. The Court did note, however, that the registration requirement was jurisdictional and the motion, therefore, should have been styled a Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(1) motion for lack of jurisdiction.

The Court also denied defendants’ motion to dismiss plaintiff’s trade secret complaints. While plaintiff did not specifically identified the allegedly misappropriated trade secrets they did allege misappropriation of customer lists, vision test methodologies and other information that could be trade secrets.

Finally, the Court dismissed plaintiff’s unjust enrichment claim because it was preempted by the copyright and trade secret claims. The alleged unjust enrichment sought damages for either the alleged copyright infringement or the alleged trade secret misappropriation. Plaintiff’s other state claims, however, required additional elements and were not preempted.

Patent Case Stayed for Second Reexam

Posted in Local Rules

Global Patent Holdings, LLC v. Green Bay Packers, Inc., No. 00 C 4623, Slip Op. (N.D. Ill. Apr. 23, 2008) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras reassigned a related case consolidating it with this case and stayed the patent infringement cases pending a second reexamination proceeding. New defendant CDW argued that reassignment of the second case pursuant to Local Rule 40.4 was not appropriate because the first case, which was dismissed without prejudice in light of the first reexam, was filed by TechSearch LLC, instead of the current plaintiff Global Patent Holdings ("GPH"). But original plaintiff TechSearch reopened the case before moving to substitute GPH, the current assignee of the patent in suit and TechSearch’s parent, as plaintiff. Because TechSearch reopened the case, the first case retained its first-filed status. The fact that TechSearch and GPH were no longer related entities when the case was reopened was not relevant.

The Court also held that the two cases were related because both accused defendants’ websites of infringing the patent because they downloaded or induced others to download JPEG and other files.

Continue Reading

Copyright Predicate Acts for RICO Claim are Subject to Rule 9(b) Hightened Pleading

Posted in Legal News

Rosen v. Mystery Method, Inc., No. 07 C 5727, 2008 WL 723331 (N.D. Ill. Mar. 14, 2008) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras granted defendants’ Fed. R. Civ. P. 9(b) & 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss plaintiff Rosen’s claims. Rosen, on behalf of himself and others similarly situated, alleged that defendant Mystery Method Corp. (“MMC”), in concert with various other business partners, violated the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (“RICO”) by continuing to market MMC’s Mystery Method dating products as endorsed or otherwise approved by the original creator of the Mystery Method, Erik Von Markovick (“EVM”). EVM created a “sophisticated system . . . to help men meet and attract women” known as the Mystery Method. EVM offered personal training in his methods and eventually partnered with MMC to administer the business of his related Mystery Method website. Eventually, EVM left MMC and started his own website

www.venusianarts.com. When EVM left, MMC maintained control of the Mystery Method website.

The Court held that Rosen had not sufficiently pled the predicate act of copyright infringement.* Rosen only pled general allegations:

[T]he predicate acts alleged herein cluster around criminal copyright infringement, trafficking in certain goods bearing counterfeit marks, mail fraud and wire fraud . . . .”

The Court held that these general allegations did not meet the Fed. R. Civ. P. 9(b) heightened pleading requirements for fraud. Rosen did not allege:

  • That MMC owned a valid copyright for the products or services offered on its Mystery Method website;

  • That EVM owned a valid copyright covering products or services offered on the Mystery Method website; or

  • How MMC’s products and services were counterfeit

Furthermore, Rosen’s complaint suggested that MMC was permitted to continue using the Mystery Method name. Rosen alleged that MMC entered an agreement with EVM to develop products and services via the Mystery Method website. And Rosen alleged that MMC maintained control of the Mystery Method website after EVM left MMC.

*  RICO requires that defendants have participated in at least two predicate acts. Copyright infringement was one of the predicate acts alleged by Rosen. The Court also dismissed on other RICO-specific grounds, but those will not be discussed here because they are not IP-specific.

Confidential Information is Potentially Broader Trade Secret Information

Posted in Jurisdiction

United Image Print Group, LLC v. Mullen, No. 07 C 6720, 2008 WL 62205 (N.D. Ill. Jan. 4, 2008) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras held that the Court lacked sufficient information to rule on preemption of plaintiff’s Illinois Computer Tampering Act and breach of fiduciary duty claims by the Illinois Trade Secret Act. Both claims were based upon defendant’s alleged misappropriation of allegedly confidential information before defendant resigned and took a position with a competitor. The Court reasoned that confidential information could include both trade secrets and protected information that did not rise to the level of trade secrets. Because information outside of the complaint was required to decide the scope of the claims, preemption could not be resolved in defendant’s Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss.

New Patent Pattern Jury Instructions

Posted in Jury Instructions

The Northern District has posted the Seventh Circuit’s new proposed pattern jury instructions for patent cases on its website — click here for a copy.  The instructions include all of the recent revisions to the patent laws, including KSR and Seagate. The Seventh Circuit requested comments on the instructions be sent to:

Chief Judge Robert L. Miller, Jr.

325 Robert A. Grant Federal Building

204 S. Main St.

South Bend, IN 46601

Comments will be accepted until April 1st.  Also, below is my list of IP jury instructions by Northern District judge, I am sure we will start to see some new ones soon in light of the turbulent 18 months patent law has had:

Continue Reading

Northern District Judges Split on Patent Pilot Program

Posted in Legal News

According to yesterday’s Chicago Daily Law BulletinTrial Courts May Take on Patent Cases (subscription required, but a free, 15-day trial is available) — the Northern District of Illinois judges are split on the value of  a proposed pilot program.  The program would provide judges who volunteer to take patent cases with extra training and the assistance of specialized law clerks.  Cases would continue to be randomly assigned.  But after a patent case was randomly assigned, if the assigned judge rejected the case it would be reassigned to a judge participating in the patent program.

Chief Judge Holderman is a proponent of the pilot program.  Chief Judge Holderman explained that the system would benefit the patent bar and that is not new to the federal courts because senior judges already have the option of rejecting cases, which are then reassigned.   You can read more about Chief Judge Holderman’s views on patent litigation in the district courts in an article he recently authored with his law clerk, Halley B. Guren, advocating, among other things, providing district judges with specialized patent training and reassigning patent cases to those judges — "The Patent Litigation Predicament in the United States."*

Continue Reading

Internet Site Alone Does Not Create Jurisdiction

Posted in Jurisdiction

Gencor Pacific, Inc. v. Nature’s Thyme, LLC, No. 07 C 167, 2007 WL 1225362 (N.D. Ill. Apr. 24, 2007) (Kocoras, J.).

Judge Kocoras granted defendants’ Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(2)&(3) motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction and venue and dismissed the case.  Plaintiff brought this Lanham Act false advertising and copyright infringement case alleging that defendants used portions of plaintiff’s copyrighted studies regarding the efficacy of a weight-loss and appetite suppressant containing Caralluma Fimbriata extract.  Defendants, a business and two individuals employed by the business, were residents of New Jersey and had a single sale to an Illinois customer, valued at $300.  Defendants only other contacts with Illinois were an interactive website accessible in Illinois and the fact that one or two of defendants’ general solicitations may have been sent to Illinois.  Defendants did not own property in Illinois and there was no proof that any defendants sent any of the allegedly infringing information to Illinois.  The Court held these contacts were not sufficient to create either general or specific jurisdiction.  The Court also held that venue was not proper in the Northern District of Illinois because defendants were not residents of Illinois and the acts at issue in the suit did not occur in the Northern District.

Court to Counsel: Play Nice

Posted in Discovery

Martin Eng. Co. v. CVP Group, Inc., No. 06 C 4687, 2006 WL 3541777 (N.D. Ill. Dec. 7, 2006) (Cole, J.).

Judge Cole granted defendant’s motion for a 21 day extension to respond to written discovery requests.  Plaintiff refused to agree to the extension (for discovery due eight months prior to the close of fact discovery) and filed a written objection to defendant’s motion citing a "pattern of dilatory conduct."  As examples of the pattern, plaintiff identified two items.  First, that it took defendant two weeks to respond to plaintiff’s settlement offer, and only then after repeated calls from plaintiff.  And second, that defendant’s Rule 26 disclosures were served nearly two weeks late.  The Court made clear that it did not condone a party ignoring the Court’s deadlines or delay more generally, but noted that "not all delays are the same."

Continue Reading

Northern District of Illinois Jury Instructions

Posted in Uncategorized

Crafting proposed jury instructions is one of the first steps when preparing for trial.  And one of the first steps in drafting those instructions is looking for pattern or sample instructions that the court has previously used or endorsed.  In order to help speed that process, I am adding a new Blog feature.  I have gathered the jury instructions that each of the Northern District judges identify on their respective  web pages as either form or model instructions.  Most have general civil instructions and a few have specific sample instructions for various types of IP suits.

Continue Reading